CIJA’s National Board of Directors is chaired by David J. Cape and comprises devoted men and women from communities across Canada. CIJA benefits immensely from the knowledge and experience of its Board members and from their passion for advocating on behalf of Canada’s Jewish community.
DAVID J. CAPE
David J. Cape has been the President of Groupe Marcelle Inc., since 2003. He is a member of the Federation CJA Board, where he served as President from 2011 to 2013. In addition to serving as Chair of CIJA, David is also a member of the Board of the Canadian Cosmetics, Toiletry and Fragrance Association.
David began his professional career as President of Princeton Transportation Consulting Group, developing software systems for large U.S. motor carriers. He subsequently moved to Seattle, WA to work as a Product Manager for Microsoft Corporation. Returning to Montreal in 1994, he took on the position of Executive Vice President at Groupe Marcelle Inc.
David has been involved in community leadership for many years. He served as Chair of the CJA Young Leadership Campaign (2002), Chair of Pro Montreal (2004-2006), Chair of the Israel and Overseas department of Federation CJA (2006-2009), Federation CJA rep on the Board of BJEC – the Bronfman Jewish Education Centre (2004-2009), Treasurer of BJEC (2005-2006), and Vice President of BJEC (2006-2009). David also served as President of Congregation Shaar Hashomayim in (2008-2011).
David earned a Bachelor of Science in Engineering from Princeton University (1987). He is also a graduate of the prestigious Wexner Fellowship Program (2009).
David Koschitzky is Co-chair and CEO North America of IKO, a worldwide manufacturer of roofing and waterproofing materials.
He was born in Calgary, Alberta, then moved to Toronto and spent nearly 15 years in Chicago. David’s community service includes being the Chair of the Board of Directors and the Campaign Chair for UJA Federation Toronto, along with chairing a number of key committees. David has also held senior lay roles in both the Campaign and Board of the Chicago Jewish Federation. David has been the President of day schools in both Toronto and Chicago. He was the first Chair of CIJA and a member of YPO for many years.
In addition David is currently Chair of the Board of Trustees of Keren Hayesod, member of the Board of Governors of The Jewish Agency, and Chair of The Jewish Agency’s Strategic Planning Committee.
He has an engineering degree from University of Toronto and an MBA from the University of Chicago.
Joel Reitman is the founder and president of Jillcy Capital ULC, a global investment firm. He co-founded advertising company MIJO Corporation and served as its president and CEO from 1978 until March 2011, when the firm was sold.
Joel is an active volunteer in the Jewish community and beyond. He has a long history of involvement with the Canadian Jewish Political Affairs Committee (CJPAC), having served as a Board member since its inception in 2005 and as National Chair from 2009-2011, for which he received a letter of commendation from Prime Minister Harper.
From 2007-2013, he served as a member of the Jewish Federations of Canada (JFC-UIA). Currently a Vice-Chair at CIJA, Joel was recently also Co-Chair CIJA’s Local Partnership Council in Toronto. Joel is a member of the board of the Jewish Federation of Greater Toronto, serves on the Sinai Health System board and is a co-founder, advisor and Board member of The Cyril & Dorothy, Joel & Jill Reitman Centre for Alzheimer’s Support and Training at Mount Sinai Hospital (2009 to present).
Joel is also a member of the steering committee for the Toronto Western Hospital, Tanz Centre for research in neurodegenerative diseases. In 2015 Joel joined the Board of Directors of the Siminovich Prize, recognizing excellence and innovation in Canadian theatre. Joel is a Vice President of the Board of the Jerusalem Foundation, an independent community foundation dedicated to preserving an open, equitable and modern society in Jerusalem through an approach centred on community vitality, cultural life, and coexistence for all of Jerusalem’s residents.
In 2013 Prime Minister Stephen Harper presented Joel with the Queen’s Diamond Jubilee Medal. Joel also received the Jewish Federations of Canada – UIA CHAI Award in recognition of his dedication to strengthening Jewish life and Jewish identity in Canada, Israel and throughout the world. Joel and family received a Humanitarian Award from McGill University in recognition for support of the Montreal Neurological Hospital.
Joel received his Bachelor of Science and Educational Communications from Ithaca College. He is a graduate of Cushing Academy (Ashburnham, MA).
Jeffrey Rosenthal is Managing Partner of Imperial Capital Group, which he cofounded in 1989. Mr. Rosenthal has co-led the formation of all of the Imperial Capital Acquisition Funds, and the resulting acquisition of a number of successful portfolio companies both in Canada and the U.S. He has been integrally involved in the oversight and growth of these businesses, leading or co-leading follow-on acquisitions and arranging both private and public debt & equity financings.
He is currently the Chairman of Dental Corp. of Canada and a board member of Vet Strategy. A Vice-Chair of CIJA, Mr. Rosenthal is Treasurer of the Board of the Mount Sinai Hospital Foundation and a past co-Chair of the Toronto United Jewish Appeal Campaign 2011
Mr. Rosenthal received his B.A. with majors in Commerce and Economics from the University of Toronto in 1984 and his M.B.A. in Finance and Entrepreneurial Studies from the Schulich School of Business in 1988.
Carol Ryder has extensive experience working with all three levels of government, not-for-profit organizations and the private sector over the past 40 years. Till 2015, she worked in the film industry for the past fourteen years in the field of corporate communications on a multi-platform basis.
Today, Carol is an active partner and principal in her family’s property management company and real estate holdings, Louson Investments in Calgary.
On a broad community level, her diverse past volunteer achievements include: volunteer Chair of Special Events proposals for Canada 2005 World Exposition; six years as Executive Director for Calgary 2000 developing the City of Calgary’s Millennium celebrations and major legacy projects such as Shaw Millennium Park, Board Chair of Bow Valley College, Board Chair of Alberta Association of Colleges and Technical Institutions, Founding Member of the Bow Valley College Campus Development Committee, Chair of the Bow Valley College Arts Acquisition Committee, Board Member on the Premier’s Advisory Council for Alberta’s Promise, Calgary UJA Campaign Co-Chair, Board Member of Canada Israel Committee and Canadian Jewish Congress.
She is currently the Board Chair of ACAD – Alberta College of Art and Design, Member of Campus Alberta, Founding Board Member of Contemporary Calgary Arts Society, Member of the Calgary Jewish Community Relations Committee, and National Board Member and Treasurer of CIJA.
Carol is a recipient of the Alberta Premier’s Leadership Award, the 2005 Alberta Centennial Medal, Bow Valley College’s Distinguished Citizen Award and a 2012 Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal for her service to the citizens of Canada and her country. Carol and her late husband Larry were the 2016 Calgary JNF Negev Gala Honourees.
Moshe Ronen is a Toronto-based lawyer, international business and strategic advisor, advocate and community leader. Moshe is currently Treasurer of CIJA and heads its Mission to Israel program. He is Vice-President of the World Jewish Congress. By age 20, Moshe was a well-known human rights activist, and later the youngest elected president the Canadian Jewish Congress. He later served as chair of the Canada-Israel Committee. He has also has worked closely with several Canadian Prime Ministers and Premiers.
Moshe is senior consultant and counsel to the Green family in Toronto, owners of Greenwin Property Management and Verdiroc Developments Holdings and consults to several major business and philanthropic leaders. Moshe is also senior advisor to Ambassador Ronald S. Lauder, president of the World Jewish Congress. Moshe has professionally advised Canadian businessman and philanthropist Gerry Schwarz (ONEX) and recently served as strategic and policy advisor to Grand Challenges Canada, which encourages and funds innovators in Canada and developing countries.
In 1996 Moshe was recognized by the Jewish National Fund with its prestigious Jerusalem of Gold Award for outstanding communal service. Two years later, the Government of Ontario recognized Moshe with a Volunteer Service Award, presented to that province’s most outstanding community leaders. In 2012, Moshe was awarded the Queen’s Jubilee Medal by Canada’s Governor General.
Moshe was educated in Toronto at the Associated Hebrew School and The Community Hebrew Academy of Toronto. He obtained a degree in political science and economics from York University and a law degree from the University of Windsor.
Toby Abramsky is VP of Keystone Property Management Inc., a family-owned Asset Management and Development firm focused primarily on Downtown Kingston. She has a passion for redeveloping heritage properties.
In May 2016, Toby completed ten years of service to the Queen’s University Board of Trustees as Vice-Chair to the Capital Assets & Finance Committee and past Chair of the Campus Planning and Development Committee. Other Board work includes Queen’s University Planning, Governance renewal, and the Principal selection committees. She continues to serve in an advisory role as a member of the Campus Planning Committee.
Local community leadership includes service to hospitals, schools, Community Foundation, Synagogue and Hadassah. Toby is a past Chair of the Coast to Coast contingent of March of the Living and past Board member of CIJA, Canadian Jewish Congress, UIA, Hillel, and Regional Jewish Communities of Ontario. She is a current member of the CIE Management Committee.
Toby is an honoured recipient of the 2012 Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal, the 2009 Ontario Volunteer Service Award and numerous Kingston Livable City Design and Frontenac Historic Foundation Awards for preservation of local Architectural Heritage.
A native of Toronto, Toby received her Bachelor of Arts Degree from the University of Toronto.
Bio to follow.
Barbara Bank‘s long involvement in the Jewish community demonstrates her strong commitment to many areas, with an emphasis on projects and programs that will mobilize the involvement – and eventual leadership – of young people across Canada.
A member of CIJA’s national Board, Barbara chairs CIJA Toronto’s Local Council. She is the past Chair of National Initiatives for the JFC-UIA’s Next Generation (NING) where she was a driving force behind the conception and implementation of the First Canadian Cohort of the Master of Arts in Jewish Professional Studies, a unique partnership between Spertus Institute of Jewish Learning and Leadership in Chicago and Jewish Federations of Canada.
From 1994 until today, Barbara has been a leader in the Canadian March of the Living, serving as Toronto Chair, National Chair, Chair of March of Remembrance and Hope (for non-Jewish university students), and the Toronto Adult March of the Living (2014). She has accompanied hundreds of young people and adults to Poland and Israel.
She served as the Co-Chair of Toronto’s United Jewish Appeal 2012 Annual Campaign and as past Co-Chair of the Israel and Overseas Committee of the Federation of Greater Toronto. She also served as Chair of UJA Women’s Campaign (1995), Vice President of the Mount Sinai Hospital Auxiliary and was on the Board of the Jewish Foundation and the Hebrew University. She is a member of the Board of the Jewish Immigrant Aid Services.
Barbara has been honoured with the UJA Federation Young Leadership Award, The Wiesenthal Award for Tolerance, Justice and Human Rights, the Canadian Friends of Hebrew University Person of Distinction Award, and a Doctor of Humane Letters, Honoris Causa from Spertus Institute.
Barbara was born in Boston and came to Toronto to study for a master’s degree in urban and regional planning at the University of Toronto. She is a graduate of the International School for Holocaust Studies at Yad Vashem.
Patrick L. Benaroche is a senior partner and former Chair of the Employment and Labour practice group of the Montréal office of Stikeman Elliott. With a background in organizational psychology, Patrick provides advice to major corporations on all aspects of Canadian employment and labour law, with an emphasis on cross-border issues affecting a mobile workforce. Patrick appears regularly before both civil and administrative tribunals on matters relating to wrongful dismissal, workplace harassment and discrimination, non-competition clauses and data privacy. He is often called upon by employers to advise on executive employment contracts, termination packages, workplace policies, employment standards and all matters arising from national and international employment relationships including plant closures, corporate restructuring and mass terminations.
In addition to dealing with workplace health and safety issues, Patrick is well experienced in management-labour relations, including union certification and decertification proceedings, collective bargaining, grievance arbitration and management of strikes and lock-outs. He also conducts workshops designed to facilitate employee/employer relationships in the workplace and assists in the strategic planning of human resource management.
A member of the Quebec Bar, Patrick is also an officer of the Employment and Industrial Relations Committee of the International Bar Association.
Patrick is a graduate of McGill University (B.A., B.C.L., LL.B.).
FATHER RAYMOND J. DE SOUZA
Father Raymond J. de Souza is a Roman Catholic priest. Ordained in 2002, he resides on Wolfe Island, Ontario, where he is the parish priest at Sacred Heart of Mary parish. A weekly columnist for over a decade at the National Post, he writes a weekly column for the Catholic Register (Toronto), biweekly for the National Catholic Register (United States) and fortnightly for the Catholic Herald (Great Britain). He is Editor-in-Chief of Convivium.ca. His principal work, however, is as Chaplain at Newman House, the Roman Catholic centre for students at Queen’s University, where he also teaches in the economics department.
In 2015 he was named the Chair of the External Advisory Committee for the Office of Religious Freedom in the Canadian department of foreign affairs, a board that includes faith leaders from across Canada. He is senior fellow at Cardus, Canada’s leading Christian think tank, and a senior fellow of Massey College at the University of Toronto.
Trained as an economist before he entered the seminary, he completed graduate degrees at Queen’s as well as the University of Cambridge, England. He completed his theological studies in Rome, during which time he was an accredited member of the Vatican press corps (1998-2003).
Bio to follow.
Rick Ekstein is the President and CEO of his asset management firm, Phaze 3 Management, and the CEO of Weston Forest, one of Canada’s most diversified lumber remanufacturing companies. Rick is also responsible for Government Relations for the Canadian Lumber Remanufacturing sector.
Tamara Fathi is currently working for Export Development Canada in Corporate and Asset Backed Lending.
Tamara was born and raised in Ottawa and has been actively involved in the Jewish community from a young age. She has studied and worked in Europe, Latin America, and the United States. She is a past Chair of the Young Adult Division of the Jewish Federation of Ottawa (2007) and a past Chair of jnet (2011). She also co-chaired Ottawa’s Social Action Mission to Israel in 2010.
Tamara represented the Emerging Generation on the Board of Directors of the Jewish Federation of Ottawa (2011-2013) and served on the Board of Directors for the Soloway JCC (2013). Tamara was also on the International Steering Committee for Dragon Boat Israel (2014-2015); Co-Chair of the Jewish Federation of Ottawa’s Campaign Kick-off (2015) and currently sits both on the Partnership Together Committee and is a member of the Jewish Diplomatic Corps of the World Jewish Congress. She received the Freiman Family Young Leadership Award in 2014.
She holds an MA from Carleton University’s Norman Paterson School of International Affairs and an MBA from Thunderbird, School of Global Management.
Bio to follow.
Bio to follow.
Born and raised in Montréal, Québec, Edward Fitch served in the Canadian Armed Forces 1966-2009, retiring as Major-General E.S. Fitch, OMM, MSM, CD (retd).
In addition to serving as a Board member and Chair of CIJA’s Security Committee, Ed is a volunteer at two synagogues in Victoria, two national level Veterans’ assistance not-for-profits, other local volunteer activities and
In November 2006 he was called up from the Supplementary Reserve in support of Op PODIUM, the Canadian Forces support to the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympics. His primary duty evolved into the leadership of the Games Red Team. At the end of March 2009 MGen Fitch was promoted to the rank of civilian after 43 years of service to Canada; he continued to serve Joint Task Force Games until the completion of Op PODIUM. Since June 2010 he has been enjoying active retirement in Victoria, BC.
Ed earned a degree in Civil Engineering at Collège Militaire Royal (St Jean) / Royal Military College (Kingston).
Jonathan Goldbloom, a communications expert with a focus on crisis and issues management, Jonathan led Bob Rae’s campaign for Liberal Party leadership.
Jonathan is a lifelong Montrealer and was a member of CIJA’s Local Partner Council in Quebec and of the Quebec Israel Committee Board of Directors.
Ronnen Harary serves as Chairman and Co-CEO of Spin Master Ltd. He plays a major role in product development, building strategic partnerships, and as an acting visionary for the company. His passion lies in building new businesses. Together with his business partners, Harary has built a hugely successful business from the ground up. His passion, discipline and success have led him and Spin Master to be recognized amongst Canada’s 50 Best Managed Companies, Report on Business Top 40 under 40, a recipient of Ernst & Young’s Entrepreneur of the Year awards in 1999, and mention in Ad Age’s Top Marketing 2008 list for Bakugan.
Ronnen believes in sharing both Spin Master’s and his success through philanthropic and community-based work. In addition to serving on the CIJA Board, Ronnen is on the Board of Directors for the CYBF (Canadian Youth Business Foundation), a member of the YPO (Young Presidents Organization) and a member of the Milken Institute Young Leaders Circle.
Ronnen earned a BA in Political Science from the University of Western Ontario in 1994.
Adam Hummel is a lawyer at Mamann, Sandaluk & Kingwell LLP, specializing in immigration law and civil litigation.
He served as the President of Hillel while at York University from 2005 to 2007 and as the President of the Jewish Students’ Association at the University of Windsor from 2010 to 2011. Between attending Canadian universities, Adam was also the Education Officer for the Union of Jewish Students of the United Kingdom.
Adam serves on the Board of Directors of JIAS, as Co-Chair of UJA’s U40 Division and its Israel Engagement Committee. He is a member of the WJC, Jewish Diplomatic Corps (JDCorps), and Co-Chair of JDCorps’ Human Rights Working Group. He is also Chair of the Holocaust Education Legacy Committee, Neuberger Holocaust Centre.
Adam obtained an Honours B.A. at York University in political science and history in 2007, and a JD from the University of Windsor faculty of law in 2011.
Marilyn Kaufman is the (first female) president of the Sgoolai Israel Synagogue in Fredericton, N.B. In addition to serving as a member of the CIJA Board and as the Local Partnership Vice-Chair, Marilyn serves on the Management Committee of the Atlantic Jewish Council and is the AJC Local Partnership Chair. In recognition of her many years of volunteer service in both the Jewish and broader communities, she was awarded the Atlantic Jewish Community Service Award (2004). Marilyn currently assists in the delivery of her Synagogue’s Jewish education studies program and is, with others, actively pursuing the formation of a local interfaith women’s council.
Marilyn served on the Executive Board of Hadassah-Wizo of Canada as National General Secretary and as one of its six National Vice-Presidents.
She is a retired educator, a graduate of the University of New Brunswick (Fredericton), with a Bachelor Degree in Physical Education Cert.IV (1974), Cert.V (2000).
As a member of the NB Teachers Federation, Marilyn was active at both the local and provincial levels serving on several committees, as well as three terms as President of her Local Teachers Association and two subsequent terms as the Director for Fredericton on the New Brunswick Teachers Federation Provincial Board.
She was recognized by the NB Heart and Stroke Foundation for her many years of service with the school Jump Rope for Heart Program. She is one of the founders of the NB Elementary Drama Festival and is a past Board member of the Fredericton Playhouse.
Bio to follow.
Jeffrey Miller is a Partner at Ginsberg Gluzman Fage & Levitz (GGFL) Chartered Professional Accountants and has been for over three decades. In addition to a trusted leader of the firm, he is also an active volunteer, devoting his time and knowledge to serve the community.
Among many contributions to the community, Jeffrey has served as an Executive Committee member of the Jewish Federation of Ottawa; Executive member and Treasurer for the Rideau View Golf Club; has volunteered with: Congregation Machzikei Hadas Jewish Family Services of Ottawa; the Bess and Moe Greenberg Family Hillel Lodge long-term care facility; Hillel Academy; the Ottawa Jewish Community Day School; and the Professional Advisors Committee of the Community Foundation of Ottawa. Jeffrey has also chaired numerous fundraisers, both inside and outside the Jewish community, raising in excess of $15,000,000.
Jeffrey received his Bachelor of Science from McGill University in 1978. He also graduated with a diploma in Public Accountancy from McGill in 1982, beginning his career in accounting shortly thereafter. He has since achieved one of the most notable accomplishments in the field, receiving recognition as CPA Fellow (FCPA designation) from CPA Canada in 2016.
Jason Murray is a partner at the Vancouver office of law firm Eyford Macaulay Shaw & Padmanabhan LLP where he carries on a litigation practice focusing on commercial, insurance and product liability litigation, class actions, and Aboriginal law. Jason advises clients on the implications of Aboriginal rights and title on resource development and works with industry and First Nations communities in the negotiation of impact and benefit agreements.
Jason serves as Chair of the Pacific Region, CIJA. In the past, Jason served as a Director of the Jewish Federation of Greater Vancouver, Director of UIA Canada, Vice President – External of the UIA Canada National Young Leadership Management Team, member of the Keren Hayesod Young Leadership International Board and was an active member of the Canada-Israel Committee Western Region Advisory Committee from 2005 through 2011. He twice co-chaired National Young Leadership Israel Advocacy Programs.
Over the past 23 years, Jason has been an active volunteer in and advisor to several federal, provincial and municipal political campaigns.
Jason is a graduate of the University of British Columbia (B.A.) and Queen’s University at Kingston (LL.B.).
The Honourable Marie-P. Charette-Poulin is currently senior associate/project manager at the Institute on Governance (IOG) headquartered in Ottawa. She brings substantive experience to the IOG as a former parliamentarian (the Senate of Canada); as a former partner at the law firm Gowling WLG; as a former senior public servant in the Privy Council Office; and, as a former broadcast executive with the CBC/SRC.
While in the Senate, she chaired the Transport and Communications Committee as well as the special study on telecommunications, Wired to Win. She sponsored the private bill which established the Holocaust Memorial Day in Canada and the private member’s bill that established Vimy Ridge Day.
Active in the community, Marie Poulin has served in the health field as a Board Member of Laurentian Hospital; in education as a Member of the founding board of La Cité Collégiale; in the francophonie as a Member of the Advisory Group to the Government of Ontario for L’Implantation de la loi 8; and in international affairs as Chair of La fédération Canada-France and as Co-Chair of the Canada-Japan Parliamentary Association. She currently sits on the Board of Governors of the Actra Fraternal Benefits Society (AFBS).
Her work has been recognized with l’Ordre national de la Légion d’honneur de la France; the Medal of the Order of St-John; Personnalité Richelieu International; an Honorary Doctorate from Laurentian University; Officier de l’Ordre de la Pléiade; La médaile du Conseil de la vie française en Amérique; Le prix de mérite de l’Association des femmes d’affaires de l’Outaouais; and Le prix Marcel-Blouin.
Marie Poulin was called to the Bar by the Upper Canada Law Society. She holds a Bachelor of Laws from the University of Ottawa, a Master’s in Social Sciences from the University of Montreal, and a Bachelor of Arts from Laurentian University,
Rabbi Reuben J. Poupko has served as rabbi of the Beth Israel Beth Aaron Congregation of Cote St. Luc since 1986. Rabbi Poupko has served in a variety of leadership roles both locally and nationally in the Canada-Israel Committee and the Canadian Jewish Congress. He is currently serving on the executive of Federation CJA and is chairing the Rabbinic Caucus.
Steve Shafir is a partner in the law firm Witten LLP in Edmonton, Alberta. His legal practice emphasizes creditor’s remedies, banking, foreclosures, security enforcement, leasing litigation and landlord’s remedies. Steve has represented clients before the Provincial Court of Alberta, the Court of Queen’s Bench of Alberta, the Alberta Court of Appeal and the Nunavut Court of Justice.
Steve sits on the Boards of several community organizations, including: the Jewish Federation of Edmonton (as Vice President); the Edmonton Talmud Torah Society; and the City of Edmonton’s Next Generation Task Force. (as Vice-Chair). In 2009, Steve received the National Award of Excellence for his commitment to the Canadian Jewish Community. During this time he co-chaired the National Young Leadership Israel Advocacy Program through CIJA’s predecessors, and, through this position, led missions to Israel for Members of Canada’s Parliament.
Steve spent a year studying at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem as part of his B.A. studies and lived in Jerusalem, Israel, for a year after earning his B.A., during which he worked for Hillel at Hebrew University. Steve earned his B.A. (2000) and LL.B. (2004) from the University of Alberta. Steve was admitted to the Alberta bar in 2005 and the Nunavut bar in 2009.
Bio to follow.
Bio to follow.
DAVID E. SPIRO
David E. Spiro is the founder and president of Spirovest Capital Inc., a private investment firm. Before joining Spirovest in 2014, he was one of Canada’s leading tax litigation counsels and appeared before the Tax Court of Canada, the Federal Court of Appeal, and the Supreme Court of Canada. David also served as a nominee of the Federal Minister of Justice on the Minister’s Advisory Committee on Appointments to the Tax Court of Canada.
David currently chairs CIJA’s Governance Committee. David was the first Chair of CIJA’s GTA Local Partnership Committee and has served on the Boards of Jewish Federations of North America, Jewish Federations of Canada-UIA, and UJA Federation of Greater Toronto. In 2007, David became the first Canadian Chair of the National Young Leadership Cabinet of Jewish Federations of North America. In the broader community, he serves on the Boards of the Canadian Opera Company and the Canadian Opera Foundation and has received an Arbor Award from the University of Toronto for outstanding personal service to the University.
David received his LL.B. from the Faculty of Law, University of Toronto in 1987 and his B.A. (with distinction) from York University in 1984.